English phonetics
Seminar units for the third year students
of the English philology department


Unit I
THE SUBJECT MATTER OF PHONETICS
Talking Points
1. How is phonetics connected with other sciences?
2. What are the branches of phonetics?
3. What are the methods and devices of phonetic investigation?
4. What is the practical and theoretical significance of phonetics?
Exercises
1. Write the plural forms of these words and transcribe them. Prove that phonetics is connected with grammar.
witch
judge
half
loaf
wife
mistress
glass
crush
knife
self
wolf
mistress
fox
calf
leaf
sheaf
actress
waitress
thief
hostess
life
thief
hostess
hostess
2. Write the three forms of these verbs and transcribe them. Prove that phonetics is connected with grammar.
beg
compel
stop
work
nod
invent
live
recognize
wrap
pane
permit
rest
open
arrive
help
ship
wait
load
travel
rain
ask
pack
expect
depend
cancel
inform
discuss
look
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3. Transcribe these words. Underline the interchanging vowels and consonants in the corresponding parts of speech.
nation national advice - to advise
grave gravity use - to use
provoke provocative a house - to house
zeal zealous an excuse - to excuse
supreme supremacy device - to devise
occur occurrence loose - to lose
close to close
4. Read the words and word combinations. Translate them into Ukrainian. Prove that phonetics is connected with lexicology through accent.
'bluebottle - 'blue 'bottle 'blue-nose - 'blue 'nose
'blackshirt, - 'black 'shirt 'blue-coat - 'blue 'coat
'black-face - black face blue- bonnet - 'blue 'bonnet
bird's-eye - bird's eye 'black-hole - 'black 'hole'
bread-and-butter - 'bread 'black mass -'black mass
and butter
5. Transcribe read translate these pairs of words. Single out the sounds that differentiate the meaning of the words.
still - steel
sell - sale
but - bath
pool - pull
model - modal
breath - breadth
ship - sheep
saw - so
diary - dairy
sit - seat
polish - polish
suit - suite
fill - feel
guard - guide
patrol - petrol
live - leave
worth - worse
mayor - major
ill - eel
truth - truce
rout - route
slp - sleep
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6. Read these compounds. Single out the sounds that interchange. Translate the compounds into Ukrainian.
knick-knack
shilly-shally
ping - pong
mingle - mangle
tick - tack
sing - song
mish - mash
wiggle - waggle
slip - slop
prittle - prattle
wig - wag
tip - top
rickety - rackety
zig - zag
wishy - washy
rip - rap
7. Read, the rhyme. State what stylistic effect is achieved through repetition.
To market, to market, to buy a fat pig,
Home again, home again, jiggety jig;
T market, to market, to bu a fat hg.
Home again, home again, jiggety jog.
To market, to market, to buy a plum bun,
Home again, home again, market is done.
8. Read these rhymes. State what sounds are used to produce the effect of alliteration and for what purpose.
(a) She sells s-shells on the sea-shore;
The shells she: sells are sea-shells, I'm sure.
S if she sells sea-shells on the sea-shore,
Then Im sure she sells sea-shore shells.
(b) Swan, swam over the sea
Swim, swan, swim;
Swan swam hack again
Well swum swan.
9. Read the rhyme. Transcribe the words used to imitate the sounds made by animals. State the stylistic- device formed by this phonetic means.
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Bow-wow, says the dog;
Mew, mew, says the cat;
Grunt, grunt, goes the hog;
And squeak, goes the rat.
Tu-whu, says the crow;
Caw, caw, ss the crow;
Quack, Quack, says the duck;
And moo, says the cow.
10. Translate these words and then transcribe them.
1. ; , 2. ; , ; 3. ; ; 4. ; ; 5. ; ; 6. ; ; ; 7. , ; ; 8. ; ; 9. ; ; 10. ; , ; 11. ; ; 12. ; ; 3. ; ; ; 14. ; ; ; 15. ; ; 16. ; .
11. Give the plural form of these words and then transcribe both forms.
wolf, wife, life, leaf, thief, knife, sheaf, half, self, elf, loaf, echo, potato, hostess, tigress. basis, thesis, crisis, analysis, man, foot, goose, mouse, bath, house, clean, box, dish, inch phenomenon, focus.
12. Accent and transcribe these words. Translate them into Ukrainian.
insult - to insult
outgrowth - to outgrow
object - to object
outlay - to outlay
outlay - to outlay
out throw - to out throw
produce - to produce
present - to present
subject - to subject
protest - to protest
torment - to torment
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13. Read the poem and state what phonetic expressive means the author uses to make it- more impressive.
The Swallow
Swallow, swallow, swooping free,
Do you not remember me?
I think last spring that it was you
Who tumbled down the sooty flue
With wobbly wings and gaping face,
A fledgling in the fireplace.
Remember how I nursed and fed you,
And then into the air I sped you?
How I wish that you would try
To take me with you as you fly.
Ogden Nash
A Widow Bird
A widow bird sat mourning for her love
Upon a wintry hough;
The frozen wind crept on above,
The freezing stream below.
There was no leaf upon the forest hare,
No flower upon the ground, And little motion in the air
Except the mill-wheel's sound.
Percy Bysshe Sheley
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UNIT 2
SOUNDS OF SPEECH AS ACOUSTIC AND ARTICULATORY UNITS
Talking Points
1. From what points of view can speech sounds be analyzed?
2. What physical properties of speech sounds do you know?
3. How does the power, vibrator, resonator, obstructer mechanisms work?
4.What are articulatory differences between vowel, consonants and sonorants?
5. What are the four main principles of consonant classification?
6. What are the principal differences in the articulation bases of the English and Ukrainian consonants?
7. What are the principles of vowel classification?
8. How are vowels classified according to the movement of the bulk of the tongue?
9. What do you know about the principle of lip participation and the degree of tenseness in the articulation of vowels?
10. How are vowels classified according to their tenseness and length?
11. What is the difference between checked and unchecked vowels?
12. What do you know about stability of articulation in vowel production?
13. What are the differences in the articulation bases of English and Ukrainian vowel sounds?
Exercises
1. Explain the articulation of /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/ from the viewpoint of the work of the vocal cords and the force of exhalation.
2. Explain the articulation of /m, n, r/ from the point of view of the position of the soft palate.
3. Explain the articulation of /w, j, h/ from the viewpoint of the active organ of speech.
4. Explain the articulation of /b/ and /f/ from the viewpoint of noise producing foci.
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5. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the aspiration of the initial /p, t. k/.
people
take
courts
paper
time
cold
purpose
town
careful
possibl
ties
car
put
tennis
cook
pence
took
covered
pity
lexis
cost
poor
till
kissed
pieces
till
campus
port
turned
curtly
penny
total
cottage
toss
current
tin
colour
6. Read these words. Observe the apical and cacuminal positions of the tip of the tongue in pronouncing the English /t, r/ and the dorsal in pronouncing the Ukrainian //.

take
rates

tent
read /red/

time
rhyme

talk
rock

tell
Wren

town
round

Tim
rim

ton
run

ties
rise

tow
room

tear
rear

take
rake

team
real

teach
reach

ticket
ricket

toast
roast
7. Read these Ukrainian and English words. Avoid palatalization of English initial consonants before the front vowels /:, , ei/.
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- pit
- gay
- dill
- seal
- till
- kit
- tik
- sill
- meal
- veal
8. Explain the articulation of the /i:, e, æ/ sounds from the viewpoint of the horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue.
9. Explain the articulation of the /ə, :/ sounds from the view point of the horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue. Compare these sounds with the Ukrainian vowel sounds /e, a/.
10. Explain the articulation of the /u:, ɔ:, a:/ sounds from the viewpoint of the horizontal and vertical movements of the tongue.
11. Explain the articulatory differences between the /i: -ı/, /u : - u/, /ɔ : -ɔ/ sounds.
12. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the difference between the fully front /i:/ and the front-retracted /ı/.
(a) seem - since (b) read - rid
meal - mill steal - still
mean - mince creek - crick
sleep - slip sleet - silt
(c) team - Tim (d) seen - sin
feel - fill dealer - dinner
been - chill heat - hit
cheap - chip beat - bit
13. Transcribe these words and rend them. Observe the difference between the mid-open /e/ and the fully open (low) /æ/.
a) bed - bad (b) head - had
then - then ten - tan
plenty - plan left - lad
else - Alice let -slack
latter - ladder select - relax
c) French- ran (d) end - and
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pence - pants then-than
burial-barrow anyway - family
twenty - twang bed - back
many - matter helping - happy
(e) dead - Dad (f) ten - tan
any - Alice men - man
Shelly - shall said - sad
merry - married bed - bad
Henry - happy chest - chap
(g) Henry - hat (h) any - anxious
central - sandy bet - back
cheviot - channel plenty - platform
many - map flesh - flash
vessel - value elderly - anxious
14. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the difference between the low long vowel of broad variation /a:/ and the low short vowel of narrow variation /ʌ/.
(a) calm - come (b) aunt - under (c) marvel - money
rather - running hard - hundred laugh - lovely
barn - button dark - dull past - puzzling
lark - luck basket - above market - mug
(d) darn - don (e) Arnold others (f) hardly - honey
Bart - but master - monkeys rather - rubbed
cart - cut started - study last - luck
March - much enlarge - instructor last- must
(g) France front (h) arm - other
harbours - hundred hardly - hundred
advantage - above started - studied
half - hut March - much
15. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the difference between the high /j:, ı/, the mid /e/ and the low /æ/.
bid - bed - bad team - ten - ten
rid - read - rat hid - head - bad
will - men - man lift - left - lad
Sid - said - sad lit - let - lack
pit - pet - pat mean - many - matter
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beet - bet - bat
16. Transcribe these words and read them. Observe the difference between the back /ɔ:/, the mid /ə/ and the front /æ/
all - earl - shall torn - turn - tan
caught - curt - cot call - curl - cat
walk - work - whack board - bird - bad
for - fur - fat chalk - church - channel
warm - worm - twang saw - sir - sad
more - mercy - man caution - curtain - cat
lawn - learn - lad
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Unit 3
FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF SPEECH SOUNDS
Talking Points
1. What is phonology?
2. How are phonemes discovered?
3. What is commutation test?
4. What is the difference between phonemes and allophones?
5. Who was the originator of the phoneme theory?
6. What schools of phonology do you know?
7. How is the phoneme defined by different scholars?
Exercises
1. Read aloud the minimal pairs below. Single out the phonemes which are contrasted.
Jug - bug led - laid lay - lie
judge - budge men - main s - sigh
birch - bird pen - pain bay - by
singe - sinned edge - age days - dies
keen - coin law - low roar - rose
try - Troy saw - so awed - ode
bays - buys gnaw - no called - cold
burn - bone pearl - pole barred - bowed
fork - folk pursed - poet Karl - cowl
fawn - phone curt - coat part - pout
fur - foe perch - poach art - out
girl - goal cursed -coast go - now
read - reared red - reared do - doer
lead - leered very - vary pear - poor
day - deer bed - bared my - mire
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pays - peers pier - pair write - riot
pace - pierce diary - dairy bowered - bowed
2. Read these words. Pay attention to the allophonic difference of one and the same phoneme:
/t/
aspirated: take, tall, tone
unaspirated: steak, stall, stone
no audible release: outpost, half pin, football, white chalk nasal release,
cotton, button, eaten, utmost; lateral release: cattle, atlas, at last
/d/
partly devoiced: do, dog, day
voiced: leader, order, murder
voiceless: bid, mad, road
no audible release: good dog, bed time, good cheese
nasal release: admit, road map, red map
lateral release: middle, headless, badly, good luck
/k/
aspirated: come, car, coal
unaspirated: baker, talking, equal, secret
no audible release: locked, deck chair, blackboard, dark night, black magic, begged
/g/
lateral release: glow, bugle, struggle voiceless: dog, leg, vague partly
devoiced: go, geese, girl, glass voiced: figure, eager, ago, begin.
3. Read these words. Pay attention to the positional allophones of the /1/ phoneme.
[l] [ł]
like - lip pull - mill
live - lily fool - hall
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least - leak doll - girl
let - list coal - twelve
4. Read these words. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the devoiced allophones of the /1, w, r/ phonemes after /p, t, k/.
cleft twice try
clag tweed tree plight - blight class - glass
ply quiet pry clad - glad clean - glean
please quaver price
clerk queer cry
5. Read these words. Pay attention to the complementary nature of soft and hard. English allophones and to the independent soft and hard Ukrainian phonemes
/p/ pea - pew /k/ key - car /f / far - fee
/b/ bee - bark /ɡ/ geese - goose /v/ veal - vote
/t/ tea - talk /tʃ/ cheese - chose /θ/ theme - thumb
/d/ deep - dope /dӡ/ jet - jar /ð/ thee - those
/s/ see - saw /r/ read - rode
/Z/ zeal - zone /j/ yes - young
/ʃ/ she - shoe /w/ we - wet
/dӡ/ Jupe - joe /m/ me - met
/h/ he - home /n/ knee net /1/ lee - law
// /'/ // //
/'/ // /'/ /'/
// /'/ // /'/
/'/ /'/ i /'/ /'/
// // // //
/'/ // /'/ /' /
// / / // //
/'/ /'/ /'/ //
// / / // /'/
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6. Read the pairs of words. Pay attention to the presence of aspiration in /p, t, k/ vs. its absence in /b, d, g/ rather than to voiceless fortis vs. voiced lenis distinction.
pet - bet
ten - den
come - gum
pig - big
town - down
coast-ghost
puts - boots
ton - done
came-game
pass - bus
ties - dies
could-good'
pack - back
takes - days
cot-got
port - bought
tear - deer
curls-girls
tart - dart
corn-gone
torse - doors
care-gare
7. What minimal distinctive feature makes these oppositions phonologically relevant?
(a)
cap - cab
sent - send
leak - league
pack - back
ton - don
coal - goal
caper - labour
latter - ladder
decree - degree
(b)
pee - fee
tie - sigh
do - zoo
supper - suffer
attend - ascend
raider - razor
leap - leak
park - part
rude - ruse
(c)
till - chill
day - jay
share - chair
martyr - marcher
murder - merger
much - marsh
eat - each
lard - large
furnisher - furniture
(d)
save - shave
Ruth - ruche
root - rouge
ruse - rouge
presser - pressure
mass - mash
(c)
bad - mad
dock - knock
rigging- ringing
arbour- armour
eddy - any
log - long
rub - rum
bad - ban
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8. Sort out the oppositions under the following headings: (a) labial vs. forelingual, (b) labial vs. mediolingual, () labial vs. backlingual.
pat - cat
wield - yield
man - nap
supper - succour
wail - Yale
coming - cunning
leap - leak
seem - seen
9. State which of the pairs illustrate (a) forelingual vs. mediolingual and (b) forelingual vs. backlingual oppositions.
tame - came
sinner - singer
sung - young
less - yes
bitter - bicker
bat - back
rudder - rugger
clue - cue
day - gay
drew - due
bad - bag
rung - young
10. Sort out the oppositions under the following headings: (a) occlusive vs. constrictive, (b) constrictive vs. occlusive-constrictive, (c) noise vs. sonorants, (d) unicentral vs. bicentral, (e) flat narrowing vs. round narrowing.
pine - fine
work - jerk
vain - lane
fare - chair
bee - thee
came - lame
boat - moat
deed - need
fame - same
seek - seen
tine - wine
sick-sing
kick - king
11. State allophonic differences of the /t, k/ phonemes in the initial position due to the influence of the next vowel.
/t/ tea, tip, ten, tan, tar top, tore, tub, took, two, term, tobacco, tale, tie, town, tow, tear, tore
/k/ key, kin, kept, cap, car, cot, core, cut, cork, cool, curb, contain, cake, kite, cow, coy, coal, care
12. State allophonic differences of:
/l, r, j/ after /p/ in: plan, price, pure;
/r, j, w/ after /t/ in: try, tube, twelve;
/l, r, j, w/ after /k/ in: clean, cream, cue, quite
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13. Read these pairs of words. State what principles of vowel classification they illustrate.
(a)
cod - cord
(b)
end - and
(c)
fir - for
not - nought
ten - tan
firm - form
cot - caught
hem - hairs
turn - torn
body - border
kettle - cattle
bird - bord
(d)
fool - full
(e)
am - aim
(f)
nor - no
pool - pull
add - aid
law - low
food - put
man - main
called - cold
tool - took
lad - laid
bald - bold
boot - book
fat - fate
caught - coat
14. Read these words and state what movement of the tongue make the vowel phonemes /e, ӡ, Ʌ, α, u, ı, æ, ɔ/ different
bed - bird - bud - bard
bid - bird - bud
lack - lurk - luck - lark
lid-led-lad
hat - hurt - hut - heart
big - beg - bag
cab - curb - cub
kit - curt - caught
tan - turn - ton
15. Read these pairs of words. State:
(a) what closing diphthongs are opposed in the pairs:
hay - high, laid - lied, no - now, known - noun,
bay - buy, tape - type, hoe - how, phoned found
(b) what centring diphthongs are opposed in the pairs:
here - hair
ear - air
rear - rare
fear - fair
beer - bear
beer - bear
16. Which of the given examples illustrate (a) high, mid, open end (b) front, mixed, back oppositions?
bead - bed - bad; deed - dead - dad; cab - curb- cub;
tan - turn - ton; bad - bird- bud; hut - hurt hut
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Unit 4
CONSONANT PHONEMES.
DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL VARIANTS
Occlusive Noise Consonant Phonemes (Plosives) /p, b, t, d, k, g/.
Exercises
1. Transcribe the words and read them. Observe the degree of aspiration: (a) the strongest, (b) less strong, (c) practically no aspiration.
(a) keep, pieces, teachers, people, purpose, curtain, turned, curly, car, courts, parts, pause, take, time, ties, tears, cold, total, care, peering;
(b) till, kissed, tin, pity, penny, tell, tennis, Pendleton, campus, Cambrian, taxi, put, took, cock, currents, colour, pumped, republic, covered, tons, possible, cost, college, toss;
(c) spent, stay, stone, study, stick, started, splendid, experience, extensively, basket, cleaning, explain, place, plan, plain, creek, crept, crop, platform, act, kept, 1ooked.
2. Transcribe these words and read them. Avoid palatalization of consonants before front, and mixed vowels.
/p/ purse, pain, pallid; /t/ temporal, turn, term; /k/ cavity, kernel, chemical; /b/ best, benefactor, bone; /d/ dig, damage, danger; /g/ gold, gimlet.
/p/ pitch, pill, peril; /t/ ticket, team, tenacious; /k/ kidnap, kiss, cap; /b/ burn, bill, bail; /d/ damp, day, deal; /g/ gibbon, gallop, gad-fly.
/p/ pedestrian,, pure, parity; /t/ sixteen, steamer, tempo; /k/ keen, basket, coast; /b/ bent, beat, billet; /d/ dignity, daze, dazzle; /g/ geese, giddy, guilt;
/p/ pigeon, piece, penny; /t/ tan, test, tempest; /k/ kettle, camel, pancake; /b/ belch, bigotry, berth; /d/ dentist, disperse, idea; /g/ geyser, gift, gander.
/p/ parody, post, posy; /t/ terrible, tune, steak; /k/ cat, caste, cable; /b/ bin, boast, beef; /d/ decent, dispirit, debt; /g/ gear, game, gallon;
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/p/ peel, pale, person; /t/ teeth, tow, toad; /k/ cave, keyboard, cold; /b/ bestir, berry, bereft; /d/ indignant, dill, duty; /g/ gurgle, goal, goad.
/p/ peak, peach, panel, pamphlet; /t/ timber, tame, tale, tent; /k/ keynote, camp, kitchen; /b/ bend, bet, bestow; /d/ defend, dean, deed; /g / gate, gash, girth.
/p/ purple, pet, pacify, packet, pea; /t/ tamper, teacher, toad, temper; /k/ comb, can, keep, cattle; /b/ beguile, belly, below; /d/ dam, diligent, dont; /g/ gibber, goat, gain.
3. Transcribe these words. Say how the /p, t, k; b, d, q/ Sounds are represented in spelling. Point out the letters which represent the mute sounds /p, t, k; b, d, g/.
happy, hiccough, cupboard, pneumonia, lamb, plumber, bomb, Thomas, Christmas, listen, whistle, bouquet, handkerchief, Windsor, chemist, anchor, banquet, except, muscle, ghost, gnaw, sign, tongue, diaphragm, sigh, plough, eight.
Occlusive Nasal Sonorants /m, n, ŋ /.
Exercises
1. Read these words and spell them. Translate them into Ukrainian.
θın - θıŋ
ræn - rʌŋ
wınz - wıŋz
wın - wıŋ
sʌn - sʌŋ
teıkn - teıkıŋ
sın - sıŋ
rʌn - rʌŋ
2. Transcribe these words, read and translate them into Ukrainian.
yarn - young
son - sung
thin - thing
clean - cling
give in - giving
not thing - nothing
drive in - driving
go in - going
come in - coming
own - owing
sane - saying
break in - breaking
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look in - looking
3. Transcribe these words. Underline /ŋ / with a single line, /ŋɡ/ with two lines, /ŋ / with a wavy line.
lunge, England, younger, anything else, nothing of the kind, willingly, taking it, mingled, sleeping, thing, hungry, fishing, morning, driving on, longer, younger, getting on, spring, seeing a friend off.
Constrictive Noise Consonant Phonemes (fricatives) /s, z, f, v, θ, ð, h, ʃ, ӡ/
Exercises
1. Read these words, spell them and translate them into Ukrainian.
θın - sin
θık - tık
hi:θ - hi:t
mʌnθs
θık - sik
θɔ:t - tɔ:t
bəuθ - bəut
ðıeıtθ zəun
θɔ:t - sɔ:t
θri:- tri
kləuð - kləuz
wıðstænd
fɔ:θ - fɔ:s
si:ð si:z
bri:ð - bri:z
kləuðz
mauθ - maus
leıð - leız
ðεə - dεə
sıkθ
θʌm - sʌm
ðen - den
ʌðə - ʌdə
ız θın
wə:θ - wə:s
ðəu - dəu
wə:ðı - wə:dı
ıts ðıs
2. Transcribe these words and read them.
found - thousand; fought - thought; Finns - things; first - thirst; free - three; deaf - depth
3. State the articulatory differences between /θ-s/, /θ-t/, /θ-f/, /ð-z/. /ð-v/, /ð-d/.
4. Prove by minimal pairs that /θ-s/, /θ-t/, /ð-z/, /ð-d/ are different phonemes.
5. Read these words. Mind the pronunciation of /h/ as a pure Sound of breath.
help, hall, house, here, hand, harm, heard, hold, head, bear, hot, hills, high, whole, he, his, hen, him, hardship, holiday, horror, hotel, human, happy, be hind, hither to, heather, handsome, hardly, horses, Henry, Holland, Hubert, Helen.
6. Read these words. Spell them and translate them orally into Ukrainian.
ʃı:p
ʃip
ʃed
ʃeıv
ʃeıp
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ʃı:l
ʃud
ʃel
ʃeıd
ʃaı
ʃi:n
ʃuk
ʃeık
ʃeım
ʃaın
ı'lekʃn
◌ kɔmpr'tıʃn
'pledӡ
'vıӡn
kəndıʃn
◌ ɔ:gənaı'zeıʃn
'leӡə
ə'keıӡn
◌ delı'geıʃn
'steıʃn
dısıӡn
'meӡə
7. Transcribe these words and read them.
she, sheep, shut, fish, brush, Irish, fishing, special, station, usual, usually, pleasure, shop, sugar, should, flash, British, English, anxious, anxiously, especially, Angelo, occasion, occasional.
Constrictive Sonorants /r, j, 1, w/
Exercises
1. Read these words. Spell them. Underline the devoiced allophones of the /r/ phoneme.
2. Read these sentences. Mind the linking /r/ in terminal position before a vowel which begins a new word.
1. Hotels are expensive in the South. 2. You can see Kyiv grow before your eyes. 3. There is a theatre and a bar in the building of the new hotel. 4. There are hostels all over the place. 5. The weather gets nicer and nicer. 6. There are a number of small islands on the river. 7. There are more sheep in Wales than anywhere in the British Isles. 8. In Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens you forget that you are in a big city. 9. The local newspapers were a surprise to me.
3. Transcribe these words. Read them. Mind the /j/ articulation.
young, youth, your, yet, yesterday, used to, news, human, museum, suit, few, reviews, used, capsules.
4. Read these words. Observe the light [l] before front, mixed and back vowels.
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large, lots, look, luck, low, o'clock, looking, absolutely, flushed, following, lost, along, kilometre, fellow, slums, clean, let, late, gladly, realize, lived, letter, plain, blank, learned, willing, left, place, landed, linked, glorious, lovely, lonely, clasp, long, looked, London, clothes, plane, longer, applause, bloom
5. Read these words. Observe the dark[ł] in terminal position and before a consonant (not /J/).
jelp, meals, adult, cold, miles, old, world, rebuilt, will, special, restful, still, rule, wild, twelve, deal, I'll, chuckle-, helps, bald, bold
6. Underline the letters, which represent in spelling the dark [ł] with one line and the light [l] with two lines in the words given below.
felt, hills, always, least, holiday. Utter, plane, like, Boil, total, gentle, little, left, explain, Black, coloured, light-headed, small, people, hostel, sleep, believe, lit, reply, model, hotel, article, lasted, longer, looked, lunch, will, special, restful, laughed, long, low, smile, nearly, usual, led, final, place, deal, clapping, fell, loudest.
Occlusive-Constrictive Noise Phonemes (affricates) /tʃ, dӡ/
Exercises
1. State the acoustic, articulatory and phonemic differences between /tʃ, dӡ/ and /tr, dr, ts, tz, θ,dð/.
2. Read these words. Spell them and translate them into Ukrainian
tʃın
tʃaınə
tʃɔp
dӡım
peıdӡ
dӡeın
tʃek
tʃaıld
wɔ:tʃ
dӡın
tʃeındӡ
dӡɔ:dӡ
tʃes
rıtʃ
tʃɔ:k
dӡımı
dӡenı
dӡə:mənı
tʃeın
mʌtʃ
kəutʃ
eıdӡ
dӡæk
dӡu:n
3. Explain the articulatory differences (a) between the English /tʃ/and the Ukrainian //; (b) between tie English /dӡ/ and similar Ukrainian combinations. Subsidiary variants of English consonant phonemes.
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Exercises
1. Read these word combinations and words. Observe (a) loss of plosion, (b) lateral plosion, (c) nasal plosion.
(a)
(b)
(c)
/p/ supped
/p/ people
/p/ open
top people
couple
happen
stop talking
appl
e
/b/
/b/
/b/
rubbed
able
ribbon
ebbed
label
stubborn
/t/
/t/
/t/
he went to see
bottle
written
I want to go
little
bitten
/k/
/k/
/k/
cook clean
tickle
taken
took Kate
cycle
bacon
/d/
/d/
/d/
good day
middle
garden
what day
beadle
pardon
walk down
riddle
warden
/g/
/g/
/g/
begged
eagle
dragon
plagued
giggle
wagon
big game
beagle
Morgan
2. Read these words. Observe the character of the voiced consonants (a) in fully voiced position, (b) in initial position, (c) in final position.
(a) /b/
(b) /b/
(c) /b/
labour
balm
ebb
imbue
bee
nib
/d/
/d/
/d/
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udder
do
hard
ready
done
hood
/g/
/g/
/g/
agony
go
big
again
gain
beg
3. Read these words. Observe (a) the longer character of the /tʃ, dӡ/ phonemes in terminal position and (b) the shorter character of the /tʃ, dӡ/ phonemes. In preterminal position (when they are followed by /t, d/).
(a) each, fetch, match, scorch, pouch, much, liege, ridge, badge, large, lodge, gorge, George;
(b) reached, hitched, fetched, matched, searched, obliged, forged, urged, judged.
4. Read these words. Observe the longer character of the terminal allophones of the /f, v, s, z/ phonemes end their shorter character in initial position.
f - leaf, if, off, cough, half, rough, safe, life
- fee, fill, fence, fan, far, fox, four, fuss, food
v - leave, live, have, of, groove, love, serve
- veal, vest, vulgar, veil, vile, vow, vote, vet
s - face, tennis, various, piece, since, kiss, guess
- sister, sea, sincerely, sick, sitting, see, sake
z - is, his, birds, days, guards, fees, please
- zeal, zebra, zed, zero, zest, zip, Zion, zone, Zouave [zu:uv].
5. Read these words. Pay attention to (a) the palate-alveolar character of the consonant modified by the following phoneme /j/; (b) the post-alveolar character of the consonant modified by the following phoneme /r/; (c) the lateral character of the consonant modified by the following phoneme /l/; (d) the labialized character of the consonant modified by the following phoneme/w/.
(a) beauty, tube, cute, duty, Gus, few;
(b) bright, try, cry, dry, great, fry;
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(c) blight, little, clever, middle, giggle devil;
(d) twice, twenty, queen, Gwendolyn, thwart
6. Read these word combinations. Pay attention to the consonant modified by the following interdental /θ, ð/
at the institute and the children
that's the latest news opened the window
on the hook on the radio
at the club about the house
repairs the plug in the bathroom
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Unit 5
VOWEL PHONEMES
DESCRIPTION OF PRINCIPAL VARIANTS
Exercises
1. Transcribe these words. Read them. Observe positional length of the vowel / i:/:
(a) see, we, tree, be, me, he, fee;
(b) seem, read, clean, seen, deal, people, easily;
(c) cheep, sweep, chief, treat, least, creek, week.
2. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
in, ill, big, wings, pit, elicit, cliffs, spring, thing, sick, wrist, silly, building, England, backing, bushes, guineas, lovely, minutes, going, dishes, begins, college, women, commit, mercy, Britain, window, symptoms, holiday, interested, excited, anything, hesitate, privilege, criticism, initiate, medicine.
3. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
bed, said, help, tell, yet, head, tennis, weather, member, letter, dressed, setter, helping, anyway, envied, pleasure, friendly, dressing, desolate, separate, hesitate, myself, remember, Endeavour, hotel, instead, forget, eleven.
4. Transcribe these words. Read and transcribe them.
glad, bad, plan, can, swan, blank, drank, act, sat, fancy, gladly, shallow, added, anxious, badly, traffic, happen, Daddy,, sadness, began, exactly, imagine, vocabulary, programme, sandwiches, manufactures, balcony, sacrifice.
5. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
are, bar, far, oar, arm, ask, card, past, farm, half, part, large, Prance, grass, dark, guard, park, start, smart, last, hard, mask, dancing, basking, laughing, rather, hardly, harbour, answer, artist, father, basket, classes, articles, archangel, departure, enlarge, at last.
6. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
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on, nod, was, rod, want, gone, job, hot, long, song, bother, bonnet, doctor, model, hostel, honest, nodded, body, offer, Holland, rooky, solid, cannot, occupy, cottages, prosperous, geometry, following, holiday, wasn't seen off.
7. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
more, drew, a11, call, bore, thought, horse, talk, sort, bought, George, shore, always, forward, water, walking, morning, before, also, exports, importance, awfully, audience, orchestra, altogether, of course, forty-four.
8. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
good, room, would, cook, foot, took, put, soot, shook, looked, bushes, manufactures, wooden, couldn't, wouldn't, woodland, restful, woman, put out, put on, good-bye, naturally, recapitulate, carefully.
9. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
flue, zoo, too, who, two, use, you, few, true, food, soon, school, youth, more, rule, huge, knew, usually, absolutely, pneumonia, moving, avenue, humour, beautiful, review, ruined, suicide, value, regular, pupils, human, assumed, constitution.
10. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
one, run, fun, shut, bus, much, ton, young, other, summer, brother, mother, another, currents, chuckle, worry, hundred, nothing, money, funny, lovely, country, compass, must, just, trouble, wonderful, wonderland, instructor, introduction, meaning.
11. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
were, heard, word, workers, thirty, stir, turned, turning, Burton, her, years, girls, birds, work, turkey, curtain first, world, worse, Sherlock, certainly, worth, dirt, perfect.
12. Transcribe these words. Read and translate them.
again, along, about, across, obey, upon, forget, surprise, cigarette, Piccadilly, confess, perhaps, suppose, condition, percent, herself, to please, to stop, the song, to do, to fish, the girls, permanent, probably, finally, wonderland, woodland, decorate, glimmering, Manchester, desolate, recognize, traveller, balcony.
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SUBSIDIARY VARIANTS OF ENGLISH VOWEL PHONEMES
Exercises
1. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /i:/ phoneme; Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) we, fever, theme, sea, deal, cheeks, reaches, yield, he, meals, me; neednt;
(b) grebe, leave, sheath, breathe, eat, feel, leash, each, beak, league, spleen.
2. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /ı / phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) mist, big, fish, thinks, thing, did, sit, lift, giver, rich, kill, hid;
(b) him, if, live, myth, with, is, bill, tin, ridge, pick, big.
3. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /e/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) wet, met, vest, then, rest, left, need, chest, jet, read, yes, get, help;
(b) ebb, them, chef, death, Bays, tell, pen, fetch, ledge, lengthy.
4. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /æ/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) van, that, lamb, gnat, champ, jam, rank, Yankee, gas, ham;
(b) have, hath, match, badge, bag, sang.
5. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /a:/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) waft, mar, vest, tear, lark, nasty, chance, jar, raft, yard, gar, den;
(b) herm, starve, hearth, pees, bars, snarl, march, large.
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6. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /ɔ/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) was, mop, vocative, thong, lot, not, chop, job, rob, yonder, got, god, hot; (b) mock, bomb, of, moth, wee, doll, upon, scotch, dodge, fog, wrong.
7. Transcribe these words. Use these to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /ɔ:/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) war, more, vortex, thorn, sew, law, nor, chore, jaw, raw, your, core, gore, horn;
(b) orb, storm, cough, north, horde, horse, all, thorn, gorge, morgue.
8. Transcribe these words. Use these to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /ʌ/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
worry, much, vulgar, thunder, thus, luck, nut, just, rub, young, glitter, hut; tub, come, love, doth, buzz, dull, none, much, judge, bug, young.
9. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional, characteristics of the /u/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) wood, foot, soot, hook, July, rook, good, cook;
(b) room, puss, bull, putsch, took.
10. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /u:/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) woo, food, you, zoom, loop, noon, roof, chew, June, youth, goose, zoo;
(b) broom, groove, booth, goose, choose, moon, stooge, duke, Bug.
11. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /:/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
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(a) were, murky, virgin, thirst, lurch, church, journey, year, girl, her;
(b) worm, serve, mirth, earl, burn, urge, quirk, burg
12. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /ə:/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) maroon, vocation, lagoon, narrate, raccoon, Japan, galloon, habitual;
(b) loathsome, of, Plymouth, Jewel, letters, bulwark, agnostic.
I3. Describe the allophonic differences of the vowel phonemes /i:, ı, e, æ, a:, ʌ, ɔ, ɔ:, u, u: ə:,:/ in these words.
1 / i:/
easily, sea, we, meals, cheaper, tree, fever, sleet, speaker, he, teach, keep, sheep
2 /ı/
in, ill, big, pit, silly, middle, shilling, thing, rivers, lived, hill
3 /e/
help, bed, ten, said, pence, weather, eleven, anyway, them, very, dead, debt.
4 /æ/
bad, plan, sad, exam,' natural, imagine, shallow, strand, channel, Jack, hats, pal, cab
5 /a:/
bar, far, started, dancing, large, grass, half, harbour, card, yard
6 / ɔ/
o'clock, body, watch, solid, nodded, crop, coughing, shocked, long, dollar, bomb, John, gone, yonder, hot, pot
. 7 / ɔ:/
bore, door, talk, thought, sorts, shore, record, water, George, altogether, norm, fall, more
8 /u/
put, books, would, took, looked, soot, room, should, awfully, good-bye, cook
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9 /u:/
blue, beautiful, move, food, soon, ruined, cool, hoof, boot, chew, hoe, too
10 /ʌ/
bus, must, nothing, funny, summer, instructor, luck, just, come, chuckle, wonderful, vulgar, thunder, thus, shut
11/ə:/
bird, turned, girl, sir, heard, Sherlock, workers, Germany, churches, curly, nurse, dirt, year, murky, purr
12 /ə/
along, about, upon, to gee, perhaps, summer, August, London, desolate, condition, consist, speaker, letter, never, anxious, human.
14. Transcribe these words. Present the rules for reading the vowel phonemes in bold type. Single out the words which are exception from the rules.
holidays, Maria, forward, sightseeing, mouth, comfort, cafe, billiards, workers, Crusoe, Sherlock, Mathew, Earnest, forehead, pneumonia, detached, bothers, head, varnished, Priestley, puzzling, pieces, asylum, record, Maugham, Friday, woodland, newspaper, taxi, unbelievable, purpose, unfortunately, awful, year, hotel, awkward, coughing, employs.
DIPHTHONGS
Exercises
1. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the, distributional characteristics of the /eı/ phoneme. State how /eı/ s influenced by the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) way, my, veil, they, lay, nay, rate, jail, Yale, gay, hate
(b) babe, shave, bathe, pace, maze, pain, age, plague
2. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /aı/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
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(a) why, my, vile, thy, lie, night, ride, jibe, kind, high
(b) imbibe, time, five, lithe, mice, rise, nine, oblige, Mike
3. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /au/ phoneme, Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) wow, mouse, vow, thou, loud, now, gown, round
(b) mouth (v), crowd, mouse, down, owl
4. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the / ɔı/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) moist, voyage, soil, loiter, roister, joy, yoick, goitre, hoist
(b) coif, choice, oil, join, voyage, hoik
5. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /əu/ phoneme, define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) woe, mow, vote, though, so, zone, low, no, rope, joke, yolk, go, hoe, known
(b) home, rove, .loathe, rode, close, pole, own, doge, rogue.
6. Transcribe these words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /ıə/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) weir, mere, veer, theatre, gear, zero, lear, rear, cheer, jeer, year, gear, hear
(b) licentiate, beard, fierce, hear, ideals, antipodean.
7. Transcribe these words. Head them. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /eə/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) ware, mare, variance, there, Zars, lair, Nares, rare, chair, Yare, garish, hare (b) Shairp, theirs, Pitcairn
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8. Transcribe these, words. Read them. Use them to illustrate the distributional characteristics of the /uə/ phoneme. Define the consonants which (a) precede and (b) follow it.
(a) wooer, moot, zoological, lure, rural, chewer, jurist, your, gourd
(b) arduous, Boers, annual, bourn
9. Sort out three words according to the distributional characteristics of the phonemes /eı, əu, aı, au, ɔı, ıə, εə, uə/ in relation to the (a) preceding or (b) following consonant. Follow the order of consonant classification: (1) Labial a) bilabial, b) labio-dental. (2) Lingual, forelingual (a) epical, (inter)dental, b) epical alveolar, c) apical palate-alveolar d) cacuminal post-alveolar. (3) Lingual medic-lingual. (4) Lingual backlingual, (5) Pharyngal (glottal).
/eı/
stay, pay, game, again, make, lake, lay, pain, case, day, weigh, rain, famous, ray, able, way, ache, late, lain, David, age, waste, pale, same, taken, Wales, shape, face, gave, paint
/əu/
go, over, hope, boating, hotel, show, hold, only, follow, road, shoulder, poker, foe, gold, don't, old, cold, both, motor, total, bureau, social, though, low, poet, yolk, motive, so, nose, cosy, jokes, noticed
/aı/
why, high, kind, wife, wild, mild, lie, die, nine, while, silence profile, right, eye, side, like, kindly, isles, eyes, idea, rise, climb, quite, ray, bright, Michael, kite
/au/
how, thousand, south, new, down, round, pound, mouth, drown, out, couch, found, loud, sound
/ ɔı/
join, enjoy, boy, point, coin, destroy, soil, employ, noise, joint
/ıə/
dear, near, year, idea, Crimea, here, severe, museum, accordeon, fear; clear, ears, cheer, theatre, real, realize, appear, period, tear, weary
33
/eə/
there, parents, anywhere, care, stare, bare, area, various, despair square, stairs, carefully, pair, Mary, dare, farewell
/uə/
sure, poor, tour, during, usual, moor, Europe.
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Unit 6
ARTICULATORY TRANSITION OF VOWEL AND CONSONANT PHONEMES
Talking Points
1. What is assimilation, adaptation, elision?
2. What types of assimilation do you know?
3. What is the merging of stages?
4. What is the interpenetration of stages?
5. What is the difference between the close and loose type of articulatory transition?
6. Give examples of contemporary elision.
Exercises
1. Read the pair of words below, characterize subsidiary variants of vowel phonemes due to adaptation.
a) booty /bu:tı/ beauty /'bju:tı/
moon /mu:n/ music /mju:zık/
b) bed /bed/ bell /bel/
wet /wet/ well /wel/
c) coop /ku:p/ cat /kæt/ keen/ki:n/
goose /gu:s/ cattle /'kætl/ keep /ki:p/
d) peel /pi:l/ pool /pu:l/
tea /ti:/ too /tu:/ tore /t ɔ:/
geese /gi:s/ goose /gu:s/ gorge /g ɔ:dӡ/
2. Read the pairs below. What variants of the alveolar /t, d, n/ should be used before /θ, ð/ which follow them?
Eight /eıt/ eighth /eıtθ/
that evening /ðæt i:wnıη/ that theme /ðæt θi:m/
wide /wəıd/ width /wıdθ/
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read it /ri:dıt/ read this /ri:dðıs/
ten /ten/ tenth /tenθ/
on my table / ɔn maı teıbl/ on the table / ɔn ðə teıbl/
heal /hi:l/ health /helθ/
all his / ɔ:l hız/ all this /' ɔl ðıs/
3. What variants of the /r/ phoneme are used: a) when it is preceded by /θ, ð/ in three, thread, with Ukraine b) when it is preceded by voiceless consonant in shriek, fry, try, free; c) when its followed by / ɔ:, u:/ in roar, room, rule.
4. Read the pair below. What variants of the consonants /d, g, ӡ/ are used before /w/?
a) dell /del/ b) dwell /dwel/
luggage /lʌgıdӡ/ language /læŋgwıdӡ/
gendarme /ӡa:nda:m/ bourgeois /buə: ӡwa/
c) read well /ri:d wel/ the bag which disappeared
/ðə bæg wıtʃ dısəpıəd/
5. Read the examples below. How are sonorants modified
a) in the clusters /pl, pr, tw, tr, kw, kl, kr/ before a stressed vowel?
b) in the clusters /pj, tj, kj, fl, fj, r, j, w, sw, sl, sj, sm, sn/ before a stressed vowel?
a)
least /li:st/
please /pli:z/
white /waıt/
quite /kwaıt/
reek /ri:k/
creak /kri:k/
lick /lık/
click /klık/
week /wi:k/
twitter /twıtə/
woke /wəuk/
quote /kwəut/
dress /dres/
stress /stress/
rye /raı/
cry /kraı/
rise /raız/
price /praıs/
wing /wıŋ/
twinkle /twıŋkl/
b)
rigid /rıdӡıd/
frigid /frıdӡıd/
well /wel/
swell /swel/
use /ju:s/
fugitive /fju:dӡıtıv/
leek /li:k/
sleet /sli:t/
wrote /rəut/
throat /θrəut/
mold /məuld/
smoke /sməuk/
36
exasperate /ıg'za:spəreıt/
entrap /ın'træp/
knee /ni:/
sneeze /sni:z/
light /laıt/
slight /slaıt/
wear /wεə/
swear /swεə/
6. Explain the mechanism of a) the orally exploded variants of /p, b, t, d, k/ in the left column, b) the nasally exploded variants of /p, b, t, d, k / followed by /m, n/ in the right column.
help us /help əs/ help me /help mi:/
departing /dıpa:tıŋ/ department /dı'pa:tmənt/
don't ask /dəunta:sk/ don't know /'dəunt nəu/
darker /da:kə/ darkness /'da:knıs/
ask us /a:sk əs/ ask me /a:sk mi:/
7. Explain the mechanism of the laterally exploded variants of the /t, d/ phonemes followed by /1/ in:
little /lıtl/ that lesson /'ðæt˛lesn/
middle /mıdl/ good luck /'gud˛lαk/
8. Transcribe the words below, Single out the vowels that may be elided in these words.
nursery temporary reasonable
petitioner phonetically parliament
policeman potato buffalo
difficult preference government
banana secretary bachelor
boundary Edinburgh naturally
several especially awfully
suppose carefully comfortable
9. Transcribe the words below. Single out the consonants that may by elided in these words.
handbag humpty-dumpty landscape
postman attempt sanctuary
a sixth round empty next stop
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last Saturday night time lamb
next time crumbs punctual
10. Give examples of historically established elision in words with the clusters /wr, kn, gn, mb, mn, lk/.
Read the words, observe the stronger aspiration of /p, t, k/ before long vowels and diphthongs. Compare with the Ukrainian /n, t, k/ pronounced without aspiration.
port tar car
Pete table cable
power tower cow
pit tip cat nap
12. Read the pairs of words; describe the mechanism of voiceless fortis, voiced lenis difference, which is functional here.
plight blight; try dry; crate greet; found bound; tune dune; piece bees; penny Benny; park bark; twelve dwell.
13. Read the word combinations below. Observe and explain the mechanism of articulation of two plosionless slops.
help Peter
club building
at times
good day
black coffee
14. Pronounce the words and word combination. Underline the sounds affected by assimilation, describe its type:
breadth, wealth, at that, afraid, apron, thrive.
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15. Arrange these English and Ukrainian words under the headings:
(1) aspiration, no aspiration; (2) palatalization a) loose CV transition, b) close CV transition; (3) labialization, labialization with the lip protrusion.
top, bee, pit, built, port, meal, cope, deep, beauty, tern, corn, music, pepper, onion, peace, come, lean, car, cable, lion, dean, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , coop, tool, tall, call, gorge, goose, doom, dawn, room, thorn
16. Arrange these words under the headings:
(1) lateral plosion
(2) nasal plosion
(3) loss of plosion (two plosionless stops).
actor, curdled, muddle, needless, mottled, Britain, begged, oughtn't, at last, what kind, admit, beck to back, madness, witness, big books, partner, slept, cotton, great number, sudden, captain, top coat, red light, black goat, ripe cheese, huddle, at night, good looks.
39
Unit 7
ENGLISH PHONEMES IN WRITING
Talking Points
1. Why is it Important to establish relationship between sounds and letters? What is a grapheme? What is a monograph? What is a digraph, trigraph, polygraph?
2. w are graphemes connected with morphology?
3. How is orthography connected with lexicology, grammar?
4. What s the importance of orthography in differentiating homo phones?
5. What s a syllabograph?
6. What is the difference between transcription and - transliteration?
Exercises
1. Give graphemes symbols of the phonemes
/s/ in the word city /k/ in the word cat
/s / in the word oceanic
/j/ in the word beauty
/ʌ/ in the word courage
/ə/ in the word borough
2. Analyze these words from the viewpoint of the inventory of graphemes, phonemes, letters.
baobab, vest, duly, ship, dish, awful, dawn, light, high, work, archaic, airy, laugh, watched
3. Give the phonetic reference of the morphograph -ed in the words: worked, limited, pinned, begged, added, liked, barred, cared.
4. Transcribe these homophones. Translate them into Ukrainian to prove the differentiatory function of graphemes.
pack - packed feat - feet vain - vein
barred - bard witch - which vane
40
pair - pare deer - deer sell-cell
pear bow - bough sail - sale
wear - where bread - bred hair - here
weather - whether right - write blue - blew
scene - seen peer - pier sea - s
berth - birth beach - beech meat - meet
ceiling - sealing hear - here heal - heel
sole - soul fur - fir fare - fair
bare - bear tale - tail cent - sent
pall - pale bent - beet team - teem
air - heir break - brake hoarse - horse
fined - find maize - maze berry - bury
pains - panes weak - week gate - gait
tears - tease currant - current plain - plane
5. Transliterate these names by Ukrainian letters.
Abel, Andrew, Arm, Baldwin, Bernard, Dorothy, Esther, Gerald, Hugo, Ira, Jean, Jeremiah, Keith, Lionel.
6. Transcribe these words. Show the phonemic reference of digraphs and polygraphs.
aid, fairy, said, fountain, portrait, villain, straight, August, sauce, laugh, authority, taught, east, tea, delay, beige, threepence, leopard, people, freight, weigh.
7. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate homophone.
(sealing, ceiling) 1. He had difficulty in the leak. 2. The spider made its web on the ... . 3. The ... of the room is high.
(sole, soul). 1. M old boots heed new ... . 2. He was the ... executor named in the will. 3. We had a nice ... for lunch. 4. He has a hard job to keep body and ... together. 5. He put his heart and ... into work.
(bare, bear) 1. In winter the garden looked ... . 2. The pain was almost more than he could... . 3. I can't ... that man. 4. He moved with the grace of a trained ... . 5. The ice won't ... your weight.
41
(pear, pair) 1. I have bought a ... of shoes. 2. Please give me a..., I prefer them to apples. 3. They went away in.
(right, write) 1. Don't ... on both sides of the paper, 2. What's the ... time? 3. In England traffic keeps to the left aide of the road, not to the ... as in other countries. 4. I hope you know the difference between ... and wrong.
(vain, vein, vane) 1. A1l our work was in.... 2. She is a ... young girl, always giving herself airs. 3. One of the ... of the propeller was broken. 4. They found a ... of gold in the rock. 5. He became so angry that the ... on his forehead swelled.
8. State a) which consonants are silent? b) which of the words have /θ/.
a) exhaust diaphragm cupboard subtle
shepherd Thomas debt tomb
listen sign comb hustle
limb isle gnarl light
heirloom knick-knack
b) wroth worthy method
throat bathe ethos
sooth loath Smith
thief moth pith
clothes strength smooth
with wealthy Plymouth
9. Learn the extracts by heart. They illustrate difficulties of English pronunciation. Transcribe these extracts.
Blood and flood are not like food
Nor it mould like should and would
Banquet s not nearly parquet
Which is said to rhyme with darkly.
Rounded, wounded; grieve and sleeve
Friend and fiend; alive and live;
Liberty, library; heave and heaven
Rachel, ache, moustache, eleven.
42
We say hallowed but allowed
People, leopard; towed but vowed
Kirk the difference moreover
Between mover, plover, Dover
Leeches, breeches, wise, precise;
Challice, but police and lice.
43
Unit 8
SYLLABLE
Talking Points
1. What is a syllable?
2. What is the structure of the syllable?
3. What is the role of sonorants in syllable formation?
4. What do you know about different structural types of the syllable?
5. Speak about the structural differences of English and Ukrainian syllables?
5. Speak on the theories of syllable formation.
7. What do you know about syllable division?
8. How does the syllable perform constitutive and distinctive functions?
9. What are the principal differences of syllable formation and syllable division in English and in Ukrainian?
Exercises
1. Give syllabic structural patterns of the following English and Ukrainian words; characterize them from the viewpoint of their structure: open, covered, etc.
(1) pit, pat, pot, bet, tip, ten, top, took - , , , , , , , .
(2) fact, taken, rhythm, prism, region, bacon - , , , , , .
(3) depths, lapsed, boxed, lisped, lifts, busts - , , , ̳.
(4) plan, price, shriek, fret, smoke, twice - , , , , .
(5) do, go, so, dew, he, pea, pie, boy - , , , , , .
(6) spy, stay, blue, brew, pray, dry - , , , , .
(7) ought, eat, orb, oak, eight, out, art - , , , , , .
(8) splay, spray, straw - , .
(9) ebbed, act, ask, else, aunt, apt - a, , .
(10) ached, aunts, asks, eights, acts, elks - .
(11) spleen, spring, sprawls, sprains, strains, screams - , .
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(12) serpents, patents, students, servants, licensed - , , , .
(13) spleen, split, street, struck, squeak, scroll , , , , .
(14) twiddle, trance, plosion, flask, flint, thrust , , .
(15) stamps, tramps, twelfth, clenched, errands - , o, .
2. a) Divide these words into phonetic syllables, (b) Give their syllabic structural patterns.
people, bugle, satchel, trifle, rhythm, April, equal, happens, marbles, patterns, dragons, urgent, servant, listened, heralds, errands, parents, patients, scaffolds.
3. Mark initially strong consonants with a single line and initially weak consonants with two lines.
kæt, 'a:mi, 'i:tə, 'laınə, 'æktə, bɔ-tl, 'mis-tə, 'lek-tʃə, rʌg-bı, mı-dl, 'wın-tə, 'ʌn-nəun, mæp, fılm.
4. Analyse these words from the viewpoint of phonetic and orthographic syllable division; transcribe end divide them into syllabicgraphs.
work, working, worker, pined, pining, stirring, occurred, cured, cheerless, curing, cheering, firing, redder, nation, culture, thoroughly
5. Arrange these words into three columns according to the type of syllable structure: (a) closed uncovered, (b) closed covered, (c) open covered.
took, pray, lifts, at, straw, boy, aunt, texts, clenched, tip, pea, struck, strays, elks, thrust, bet, fact, fret, asks, ebbed, price.
6. Write out: (a) initially weak (filially strong) and (b) finally weak (initially strong) consonants.
sit, lame, back, miss, sack, grave, tip, tide, top, late, mad, made, nine, till, cake, thick, bat, pin, pine, hate, act, ice, plot, face, hid, fate, stamp, spot, pile, land, mist, mole, mark, gold, cap, nose, fix, harm, merry, horn, start, form.
7. Divide these words into phonetic syllables.
comfortable, cottage, orchard, ground, kitchen, pantry, study, several, upstairs, bedroom, nursery, bathroom, furniture, modern, own, electricity, January, February.
45
Unit 9
STRESS
Talking Points
1. How is stress defined by different scholars?
2. What is stress on the auditory, articulatory and acoustic level?
3. What types of word-stress do you know?
4. Name the difference between stressed vocalism in English and Ukrainian.
5. What is the difference between fixed and free type of word-stress?
6. What is the shifting of word-stress?
7. How does stress perform constitutive, distinctive and recognitive functions?
8. What factors determine the place and different degree of Word-stress?
9. What are the most common types of English stress patterns?
Exercises
1. Read these compound words with two equal stresses and translate them.
unapt /'ʌn'æpt/ repack /'ri:pæk/
unartistic /'ʌn'a:tıstık/ prepaid /'pri:'peıd/
unhuman /'ʌn'hju:mən/ misspell /mıs'spel/
unmaterial /'ʌn'metıərıəl/ misuse /'mıs'ju:z/
unsanitary /'ʌn'sænıtərı/ misrule /'mıs'ru:l/
unclean /'ʌn'kli:n/ misquote /'mıs'kwəut/
anticyclonic /'æntısaıklɔnık/ misplace /'mıs'pleıs/
anti-national /'æntı'næʃnəl/ under-dressed /'ʌndə'drest/
non-payment /'non'peımənt/ underofficer /'ʌndə'ɔfısə/
non-resident /'non'rezıdənt/ under populated /'ʌndə'pɔpjuleıtıd/
non-stop /'non'stop/ vice-admiral /'vaıs'ædmırəl/
ex-minister /'eks'mınıstə/ vice-consul /'vaıs'kɔnsəl/
reopen /'ri:'əupən/ -history /'pri:hıstərı/
46
reorganize /'ri:'ɔ:gənaız/ ultra-modern /'ʌltrə'mɔdən/
2. Read these compound adjectives with two equal stresses and translate them.
'good-'looking, 'old-'fashioned, 'bad-'tempered, 'absent-'minded, 'bare-'headed, 'home-'made.
Note. When compound adjective has a synonym to its first element, the stress is on the first element:
oval-shaped = oval
yellowish-looking = yellowish
square-shaped = square
greenish-looking = greenish
3. Read these composite verbs with two equal stresses.
'carry 'out 'go on
'come a'cross point 'out
'get 'up 'put 'on
'see 'off 'sit 'down
'set 'up 'take 'off
'fall 'out 'fall 'back
'make 'up 'get 'back
'blow 'out 'bring 'forth
'pick 'out 'fix 'up
4. Read these compound words with one single stress on the first, most important part of the compound, and translate them.
Apple-tree, bystander, daybreak, birthday, sheep dog, pillow-case, school-boy, suit-case, time-table, inkpot, hair-do, housewife, everything, fire-place, broadcast, fountain-pen, anyone.
5. Read these compound nouns with one stress denoting a single idea and translate them:
butterfly, newcomer, butter-fingers, blacksmith, greatcoat, airplane, bluebottle, butter-boat, butterdish, bookmark.
47
6. Read these pairs of words. Translate them into Ukrainian, mind the semantic importance of word-stress (distinctive and recognitive function):
'blackboard - 'black 'board overwork - over 'work
'blackbird - 'black 'bird 'yellow-cup - 'yellow 'cup
'strongbox - 'strong 'box 'tallboy - 'tall 'boy
7. Read these pairs of words. Translate them into Ukrainian, mind, the importance of the form-distinctive accenteme.
abstract - to ab'stract 'commune - to co'mmune 'compound - to com 'pound 'conflict - to con 'flict 'contest - to con'test'cup
8. Read the sentences below to prove the distinctive function of the stress. Translate them into Ukrainian.
1.
'Contrast makes it seem better.
Con'trast Tom with his sister.
It's because of'contrast.
It's because they con'trast.
2.
'Export is forbidden.
Ex 'port cotton goods.
These' goods the cities ex'port.
3.
This 'forecast was wrong.
I like his 'forecast
It's what they fore'cast.
4.
A prefix is added.
Pre'fix a paragraph to Chapter I.
It's a 'prefix.
It's a paragraph they decided to pre'fix
5.
He is a 'suspect.
He is the man we sus'pect.
The. 'suspect is. here.
We sus'pect this man.
6.
They gave way without protest.
They decided to pro 'test
This 'protest was wrong.
Pro'test against it.
9. Put down the stress marks in the words below. Read them according to the model.
Model: qualifi'cation - 'just qualifi'cation (emphatic variant)
centralization, modification, composition, nationalization, organization, anticipation, intersession, overbalance, justification, hospitality, satisfactory, sentimentality, impossibility, idiomatic, artificial, unaccountable, fundamental,
48
distribution, representation, characteristic, ornamentation, interrogation, administration.
10. Put down the stress marks in the words below. Translate them and read according to the stress pattern.
ascertain, acquiesce, grotesque, cigarette, antique, saloon, employee, career, lemonade, atomic, phonetic, phonological, familiarity, proletarian, beneficial, efficient, aqueous, residual, impetuous, propriety, active, relative, gratitude, attitudinal, sagittal, upwards.
11. Provide these words with necessary stress marks.
air-raid, birdcage, coalmine, teapot, washstand, mail-bag, dance-music, grandfather, handwriting, shopkeeper, ladybird, office-boy, waiting-room, dinner-jacket, tape recorder, labour exchange, ground floor, knee-deep, cross-question, fist-footed, shop-window, hot-water-bottle, waste-paper-basket, postgraduate, vice-chancellor, second-hand.
12. Put down stress marks in the sentences below. Translate them.
1. The abstract is short. Abstract this theory. 2. This accent is on the first syllable. Mark it with a weak accent. He accents the word. It's the word son you are to accent. 3. A conflict sock place. They conflict with this theory. It's finished in a conflict. Still, they conflict. 4. The contest wan friendly. They contest this statement, it's a contest. They contest it. 5. The contrast was signed. They contrast serious diseases. It's a contract. These diseases they contract.
49
Unit 8
STRONG AND WEAK FORMS. UNSTRESSED VOCALISM
Essential weak forms
Class
Word
Weak Forms
articles
a
/ə/
not before vowels
an
/ən, n/
only before vowels
the
/ðə, ðı/
before vowels
conjunctions
and
/ənd, ən, n/
as
/əz/
than
/ðən/
in hardly ever used
that
/ðət/
but
/bət/
or
/ɔ' ɔ/
before vowels
particles
there
/ðə/
before consonants
/ðə'/
before vowels
to
/tə/
before consonants
/tu/
before vowels
prepositions
at
/ət/
for
/fə/, /fər/
before vowels
from
/fr ɔm/
of
/əf/, /ə/
often used before /ð/
to
/tə/,/tu',tu/
used before vowels
into
/ıntə/,/ıntu/
before vowels
through
/θru/
verb be
am ('m)
/əm, m/
are ('re)
/ə/, /ər/
before vowels
is ('s)
/, z/
was
/wəz/
50
ware
/wə/, /wər/
used before vowels
auxiliary
has ('s)
/az, s, z/
verb have
have
/əv, v/
had ('d)
/əd, a/
other auxiliary
do
/də, du/
and modal verbs
does
/dʌz/
can
/kən/
will
/əl, l/
shall
/ʃəl/
would
/ ɔd, d/
should
/ʃəd, d/
must
/məst, məs/
could
/kud, kd/
pronouns
them
/ðəm, ðm/
us
/əs/
our
/a:/
you
/ju'/, /ju/
he
/hi,hı, i:, ı/
she
/ʃi, ʃı/
we
/wi, wı/
me
/mi, mı/
har
/hə,:/; /əi/
negatives
not
/n ɔ t, nt/
non
/n ɔ, n ɔr/
51
ESSENTIAL CONTRACTED FORMS
Derivation
Full Form
Written Contracted Form
Spoken Contracted Form
Comments
he
I am
I'm
/aim/
you are
you're
/jə:, juə/
before vowels
he is
he's
/hi:z/
she is
she's
/ʃi:z/
it is
it's
/ıts/
we are
we're
/wi:ə/
before vowels
they are
they're
/ðεər/
before vowels
have
I have
I've
/aıv/
not necessarily used if
you have
you've
/ju:v/
have is a main verb
he has
he's
/hi:z/
cannot be used if
she has
she's
/ʃi:z/
have is a main verb
it has
we have
we've
/wi:v/
not necessarily used if
they have
they've
/ðεıv/
have is a main verb
shall
I shall
I'll
/aıl/
will
you will
you'll
/ju:l/
he will
he'll
/hi:l/
she will
she'll
/ʃi:l/
it will
it'll
/ıtl/
we shall/will
we'll
/wi:l/
they will
they'll
/ðeıl/
Context usually makes it
I had (should)
you'd
/aid/
clear
would
whether
had+
you had
you'd
/ju:d/
had or should
should/
(should)
would is meant
would
would
he had/would
he'd
/hı:d/
52
she had/would
she'd
/ʃi:d//
it had/would
it'd
/ıtəd/
we had/would
we'd
/wı:d/
they had/would
they'd
/ӡeıd'/
not
are not
aren't
/a:nt/
also used in aren't
were not
weren't
/w:nt/
all auxiliaries may
do not
don't
/dəunt/
combine with n't
shall not
shan't
/ʃant/
to from contracted
will not
won't
/wəunt/
form and only the
cannot
can't
/kənt/
most significant
must not
mustn't
/mʌsnt/
and/or irregular
dare not
daren't
/deənt/
are given here
there are many more
such as isn't, wasn't,
couldn't, shouldn't
let
let us
let's
/let's/
only as auxiliary verb
there
there is
there's
/ðεəz, ðez, ðəz/
there are
there are
/ðeərə, ðerə/
before vowels
there will
there'll,
/ðεəl, ðəl/
there would
there'd
/ðεəd, ðəd/
53
The neutral vowel / ə / may alternate with any vowel of full formation, e.g.
/i:/ - /ə/
the -
/ði:/
the lesson -
/ðə'lesn/
/e/ - /ə/
pence -
/pens/
three pence -
/'θrepens/
/æ/ - /ə/
land -
/lænd/
England -
/ıŋglənd/
/a:/ - /ə/
particle -
/pa:tikl/
particular -
/pə'tıkjulə/
/ɔ/ - /ə/
a combine -
/ə'kombaın/
to combine -
/tə kəm'baın/
/u/ - /ə/
fully -
/fulı/
playfully
/pleıfəlı/
/u/ - /ə/
to him -
/tu'hım/
to the table
/tə ðə teıbl/
/ʌ/ - /ə/
some -
/sʌm/
tiresome
/'taıəsəm/
/ɜ:/ - /ə/
herd -
/hɜ:d/
shepherd
/'ʃepəd/
/aı/ - /ə/
shire -
/ʃaıə/
Yorkshire
/'j ɔ:kʃə/
/au/ - /ə/
mouth -
/mauθ/
Plymouth
/'plıməθ/
/əu/ - /ə/
folk -
/fəuk/
Norfolk
/'n ɔ:fək/
/ıə/ - /ə/
revere -
/rı'vıə/
reverence
/'revərəns/
/εə/ - /ə/
there's -
/ðεəz/
there's
/ðəz/
1. Transcribe these words. Single out the pairs of phonemes in which / ə / alternates with the vowel of full formation in the unstressed position.
armour
- army
allusion
- illusion
tell 'em
- tell him
sitter
- city
forward
- foreford
some
- some
that
- that
variety
-various
2. Transcribe these words. Use them to illustrate the peculiar feature of the English unstressed vocalism, latchkey, simplicity, protest n, skylark, pantheon, bulldog, outdoor, dining-room, into, mildew, woodcut, heart-burnt humpback, highway, simplify, highbrow, convoy, rainbow, raincoat, underwear, armature.

Unit 9
INTONATION
Talking Points
1. How is Intonation defined?
2. What are the main approaches to the study of intonation?
3. Speak on: a) the melody of the pitch component of intonation; b) sentence stress; c) rhythm and tempo; d) pausation and tamber
4. Speak on the stylistic use of Intonation.
Exercises
1. Read these words with the s main tones: (1) low fall, (2) low rise, (3) high fall, (4) high rise, (5) fall-rise, (6) rise-fall,
Model: deed, deed, deed, deed, deed, deed
feed, cord, window, something, matter, quarter
2. Read these words and word combinations (a) with the undivided falling-rising tone, (b) with the divided falling-rising tone.
(a) cousin, husband, country, London, midday, blackboard, quinsy, bedroom, bathroom, modern, cottage
(b) sit down, good morning, good day, go on, come up, what's up
3. Read these words and word combinations (a) with the undivided rising-falling tone, (b) with the divided rising-falling tone.
(a) please, read, begin, 'listen, bad, thank, well, what, right, come, foreign, wrong, dear
(b) put down, write down, clean the board, not large, behind Tom, long ego, poor thing
4. Read these sentences. Observe (a) the low falling tone and (b) the high falling tone.
(a) She is cold. (b) She is 'cold.
She is at the hospital She is at the 'hospital
55
'Father is at home.
'Don't go a 1one.
'Don't 'take the lamp
'Father is at 'home.
'Don't go a'lone.
'Don't take the 'lamp.
He is not well.
'Why are you late?
'Betty is in bed.
'Mother is busy.
He is 'not 'well.
'Why are you 'late?
'Betty is in 'bed.
'Mother is 'busy.
5. Read these sentences. Observe the tone marks.
1. When are you coming? 2. You can have it tomorrow. 3. When did you last 'see your parents? 4. She 'never 'really 'looks very well. 5. My books are fairly new. 6. It easier to 'speak than to understand. 7. 'What did you 'say? 8. You might have 'warned me. 9. How long do you want, to keep it? 10. She won't do it any better then you. 11. Would you like another 'lump of sugar? 12. You 'can't go to the party dressed like that. 13. Will you wait till have had time to look for it. 14. It's always the same.
6. Read the following communicative types with the appropriate attitudes:
(a) categoric statements (cool, reserved, indifferent, grim attitude) low fall
1. I want to talk to you. 2.'What country are you from? 3. I 'can't 'speak Spanish. 4. I was busy that day. 5. You knew he was there.
(b) disjunctive questions (statement of a fact provoking the listener's reaction).
They know about it don't they?
1. He read this book, didn't he? 2. She 'worked 'hard at her English didnt she? 3. They are in the water, aren't they? 4. Tom is already ten, isn't he? 5. Your 'sister' wants to study German, doesn't she? 6.I can do something, can't I? 7. It's five o'clock, isn't it? They know about it, don't they?
(You are sure that the listener agrees with what you say). Read the same questions with the above shown sequence.
(c) commands (firm and serious attitude)
Show me your ticket.

1.Turn on the Light 2. Wash and iron your dress. 3. Leave the door open. 4. Don't 'go to the concert. 5. Hang up the time-table. 6. Repair the tape recorder. 7. Finish this work. 8. Saw the button on to your coat.
(d) exclamations (weighty and emphatic)
How ridiculous:
1. I'm so happy! 2. The 'weather is lovely! 3. It's all over now! 4. Stop teasing your sister! 5. How 'quick the 'young people are! 6. What a tidy room! 7. Lovely weather! 8. Wonderful language laboratory! 9. Such selfish young men!
(e) special questions ( serious, intense, responsible)
What's the time?
1. When did you come home? 2. What do you do? 3. What did you do in the evening? 4. How did you pend the 'time yesterday? Pronounce the same questions with the low rising tone to show interest. What's all this fuss about?
Pronounce the same questions with the low rising nuclear tone, following the interrogative word to show disapproval.
When did you come there?
Pronounce the same questions with the high falling nuclear tone, to show business like interest.
What's the time?
Pronounce the same questions with the high rising nuclear tone to ask for a repetition.
'What's the time?
Pronounce the same questions with the falling-rising nuclear tone to make t challenging, antagonistic
'What's the time?
(f) alternative questions the final fall shows that the list is complete
1. Would you like bread or meat? 2. Would you like fish or meat? 3. 'Would you like fish or eggs? 4. Would you like potatoes or tomatoes? 5. 'Would you like

carrots or cabbage? 6. 'Would you like cucumbers or beets? 7. Would you like coffee or tea?
(g) statements containg an implication. What s implied is clear from the situation, it may be: suggestion, concern, polite correction, reluctance, careful dissent, grateful admittance.
I am not late.
1. I 'hope I am not late. 2. You are not right. 3. I work systematically. 4. I have no time for lunch today. 5. I should have done it. 6. I can't answer this question. 7. You can sing perfectly.
(h) requests (pleadingly, reproachfully, reassuringly)
1. Cheer up. 2. Do forgive me. 3. 'Don't do it. 4. Come in. 5. Don't do it alone! 6. Will you invite me? 7. Go on.
7. Read these sentences. Make the auxiliary and modal verbs that begin sentences stressed to show greater Interest.
1. Does it matter? Does it matter? 2. Is he going to come? Is he going to come? 3. Do you like oranges? Do you like oranges? 4. Can you have an after noon off? Can you have an after noon off? 5. Could they help it? Could they help it?

GLOSSARY OF PHONETIC TERMS
A
accent [′eksənt] ,
accommodation
acoustic [ə′ku:stik]
allophone [′æləfəun] variant of the phoneme,
alveoles [′ælvıəulz]
apex [′eipeks]
apical [′æpıkəl]
aspiration [′æspıreıʃn] a slight puff of breath which is heard after the explosion of (p, t, k)
assimilation [ə,sımı'leıʃn ]
B
bilabial [baı′leıbıəl] articulated by the upper and lower lip.
bronchi [′brɔŋkaı] two main divisions of the trachee, leading into the lungs.
C
cacuminal [kə′kju:mınəl] , .
combinatory [kəm′bınətərı]
commutation method
consonant
constrictive
D
descending scale
diphthong [dıfθɔŋ]
dorsal ,

diacritic [daıəkrıtık] , ĕ, ū.
dorsum [dɔ:səm] back
E
exhalation [ekshə'leıʃn]
expiration [ekspaı'reııʃn]
F
focus foci the place in the mouth cavity in which the obstruction is formed fortis strong
fricative
fore lingual
G
glide that part of diphthong which constitutes its additional element
glottal stop a sound which reminds a slight cough
glottis .
H
homographs ['hɔməgra:fs] words similar in orthography but different in pronunciation and meaning. For example: tear [tɛə] i tear [tıə]
homophones ['hɔməfɔunɔz] words that are similar in pronunciation but different in orthography and meaning. For example: knight night, not knot.
K
kymograph ['kaıməgra:f]
L
labial
labio-dental -
laryngoscope ['lærıŋgəskəup] a
lenis
loose transition
M

modification
monophthong [mɔnəfθɔŋ]
N
nasal
O
obstruction
oral
P
palate the roof of the mouth, separating the mouth cavity from the nasal cavity
pharyngeal [fə'rıŋgəl]
plosive
R
retroflexed
S
syllable
syllabograph
T
trachea [trə'kıə]
timbre [tımbə]
U
uvula ['ju:vju:lə]
V
velar [vi:lə]
vowel [vauəl]

REFERENCES AND SOURCES
1. .., .. 1972. . : .
2. .. 1997. . : .
3. .. 1968. . : - . . .
4. Brovchenko T., Bant I. 1964. English Phonetics. : .
5. Brown G. 1984. Listening to Spoken English. M.: Prosveshcheniye.
6. Dikushina O.H. 1965. English Phonetics. M-L.: Prosveshcheniye.
7. Coogle, P. 1993. Do you speak Estuary? London: Blomsbury.
8. Gimson A. 1980. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English / 3rd ed. London: Blackwell.
9. Halle M. 1972 Phonology in Generative Grammar: Phonological Theory, Evolution and Current Practice. N.Y.: New American Library.
10.Hewings M. 1995. Pronunciation Tasks. Cambridge: CUP.
11. Halliday M. A. K. 1970. A Course in Spoken English: Intonation. London: Penguin.
12.Jones D. 1972. An Outline of English Phonetics. Cambridge: CUP.
13. Kenworthy J. 1987. Teaching English Pronunciation. London & N.Y.: Mouton de Gruyter.
14. Kingdon R. 1958. The Groundwork of English Intonation. London: Penguin.
15. Leontyeva S.F. 1980. A Theoretical Course of English Phonetics. M.: Vysšaja škola.
16. Crystal D. 1997. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
17. Roach P. 1991. English Phonetics and Phonology. Cambridge: CUP.
18. Rogerson P., Gibbert J. 1990. Speaking Clearly Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension for Learners of English. Cambridge: CUP.
19. Vassilyev V.A. 1970. English Phonetics. A Normative Course. M.: Vysšaja škola.
20. Vassilyev V.A. 1970. English Phonetics. A Normative Course. M.: Vysšaja škola.
21. Wells J.C. 1982. Accents of English. Cambridge: CUP.

P.S. For any additional information on the course feel free to contact the lecturer ivanbekhta@yahoo.co.uk

 

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